The standard model describes four fundamental forces; gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and weak. How is gravity different? [Read more…] about How does gravity compare to the other fundamental forces?
There are four fundamental forces of nature: gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and weak. Each force can be explained using fields and 3 also have bosons associated with them, known as force carriers. [Read more…] about Fundamental Forces
Galaxies within the universe have been observed to be rotating much faster than we had initially predicted. The gravity produced by the matter which we can observe is not enough for these speeds to be reached, therefore scientists believe that there is extra mass in the universe that we just cannot see, dark matter. [Read more…] about Dark Matter
The rate of expansion of the universe is increasing however, scientists have no explanation of why. The force of gravity should be slowing it down, but we have concluded that there must be some other energy in the universe causing this expansion to accelerate. [Read more…] about Dark Energy
Making computers possible, transistors were invented in 1947. They are used as switches and amplifiers in circuits and are key to controlling flow of current.
Solar cells convert light energy into electrical energy using what is known as the photovoltaic effect, using the fact photons are absorbed by electrons when incident on a metal surface. [Read more…] about Solar Cells – Applying the Photovoltaic Effect
Feynman diagrams are used to graphically show particle interactions in a simple way. There are some basic rules which can be followed in order to learn how they are drawn. [Read more…] about Feynman Diagrams
Wave particle duality is the idea that all particles can be described as waves as well as particles. Experiments with light showing it acting as a wave and particle have helped us to understand and develop this theory. [Read more…] about Wave-Particle Duality
With energy demand constantly increasing and the supply of fossil fuels going down, finding an alternative source of energy is required. Fusion is the process which powers the stars but could soon be used to generate electricity on Earth. [Read more…] about Nuclear Fusion: The Future Of Electricity Generation?
Superconductors are materials which can conduct electricity with no resistance and they also behave in a unique way in magnetic fields. By why does cooling certain materials cause this effect? [Read more…] about Superconductors
NMR spectroscopy is used to determine the properties of atoms and the molecules which contain them. It uses something called magnetic resonance in order to provide data on specific molecules. [Read more…] about NMR Spectroscopy – Using Magnetism to Detect Atoms
Carbon nanotubes are a type of fullerene, an allotrope of carbon. They have some fascinating properties and a lot of reasearch is currently being undertaken in their electrical properties. [Read more…] about Nanotubes
It is a widely accepted fact in physics that the speed of light is the fastest any particles can travel. In 2011, neutrinos appeared to have been found going faster than the speed of light. Although this was later disproved, some physicists believe faster-than-light particles are possible. [Read more…] about Is it possible to go faster than the speed of light?
Carbon fibre is used in a range of applications where lightweight materials are favoured but strength still important. For example, in motorsport. How does its composition make it fulfill these requirements? [Read more…] about Carbon Fibre
LEDs are a type of diode, which emit light when an electric current is passed through them. They are made of semiconducting materials, which only allow current to flow one way. The movement of electrons to different energy levels is the reason for the light being emitted. [Read more…] about How Do LEDs Work?
The space pen is a specially designed pen that can work in zero-gravity, underwater and at lots of temperatures. A regular pen requires gravity in order to work, so in zero-gravity situations such as on the space station, they cannot work. So how does the space pen work without gravity? [Read more…] about How Do Zero-Gravity Pens Work?
The Bernoulli effect is key to our understanding of aerodynamics and crucial within aircraft design and motorsport. In motorsport, the engineers will want to generate downforce, pushing the car onto the road and providing more grip. In aerospace engineering, the aim is to produce lift to keep the plane in flight. [Read more…] about What is the Bernoulli Equation?
The standard model was developed in the 1970s and it classifies all of the known elementary particles, of which there are 17. Twelve of these are matter particles, grouped as quarks and leptons. Another four make up the charge carriers group, one for each of the fundamental forces. The final elementary particle and the latest addition to the standard model is the Higg’s Boson. [Read more…] about Elementary Particles
By definition, a complex number is a number in the from a+bi where and and b are real and i is the imaginary constant where i2 = -1. But, what actually is a complex number and why are mathematicians and physicists so obsessed with them?
At school we are repeatedly told that ‘like charges repel’, this led me to wonder how the protons stayed together in the nucleus of an atom without all repelling one another. The reason for this strange behaviour lies within the field of quantum physics and more specifically quantum chromodynamics, QCD. [Read more…] about Quantum Chromodynamics